2013-12-08 13:57:08

17. Evaluation of inland surface water condition in particular areas in Poland, Finland and France summary

 

The Comenius project is carried out by students of II Liceum Ogólnokształcące in Oleśnica together with partners from France and Finland. It assumed to take international, joint operations in selected area. As the main subject of the project is connected with impact of human activities an aquatic resources and water quality, we decided that each participating school will conduct some research on water quality taking into account common indicators.

Therefore, we included specific inland waters in our research: in Poland - Oleśnica river, in France - La Loire river and Graggbole lake located in Parrainen in Finland. Every listed reservoir is the surface water, not ground water. In Poland and Finland, there is ground water in researched areas, too. In contrast, in Mayenne area ground waters do not appear because of the soil which is composed of sandstone slate and calcium, which are impermeable and stop water entering deeper layers.

Fresh water in Parrainen is the area known as eutrophic inland water reservois, also used as a source for drinking water. The Oleśnica river, the longest tributary of the Widawa river, is used in different way – it supplies fish ponds and is a recreational area for townspeople (ground water is used for drinking purposes). In France, surface water (including the tested water), is used in households, to irrigate fields in farming and, remotely, in industry. For all researched countries the water resorvois and nearby areas are important nesting sites of many bird species living there.

Common physical-chemical factors tested in the countries were: nitrates NO2-, NO3-, NH4 + ammonium ions and phosphates PO 4 3 -. However, the temperature was meant to be a common physical parameter. One of the most important physical parameters is this last factor, because it affects the amount of oxygen, the rate of photosynthesis and metabolism of aquatic organisms, and also sensitivity to toxins, parasites and diseases. Very low or very high temperature adversely affects aquatic organisms. In the heated water all biochemical and physiological processes are accelerated. The temperature also increases water turbidity, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen at the same time.

Due to the season (early spring), water temperature in Finland and Poland was rather low (6-8°C), but it was within standards. By comparing the results of chemical testing - ions content, we found high level of nitrates in Poland and France. The main cause may be wastewater (industrial or household) and flows from fertilized soil in farming. Water tested by the Finnish students didn’t contain nitrate ions, but there were lots of phosphate and ammonium ions. The most probable cause may be detergents from waste water (the source of phosphates).

Our schools are located in different parts of Europe. We speak different languages, but we appear to use the same methods and research techniques. We use similar procedures, analyse results and draw conclusions in similar way. Moreover, our countries face similar problems connected with polluted surface water, and the sources of pollution are alike, too. In the field of water ecology we speak similar voice.